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Re: “The Future of Driving, Marijuana, And Being Stoned Behind The Wheel

If you go to:
http://drugpolicy.ca/about/publications/

They have some reports in there, which are full of references of real-world studies from the US and other countries, concerning impaired driving and what not..

There's some good info and the references within...

Also, the www.globaldrugpolicy.org has some good info and cross references.

Posted by Jason Lun on 05/21/2017 at 11:09 PM

Re: “The Future of Driving, Marijuana, And Being Stoned Behind The Wheel

The Journal of Drug Policy and Practice - Volume 10, issue 3 - fall 2016

Why a 5 ng/ml THC Limit is Bad Public Policy - and the Case for Tandem per se DUID Legislation:

https://goo.gl/WT74ns

To quote some sections (formatting may be off, sorry)...:

Page 4:

marijuanas THC is unlike alcohol chemically, biologically, and metabolically. As a result, what works for alcohol does not necessarily work for THC. There is no level of THC in blood above which everyone is impaired and below which no one is impaired. This is not due to a lack of research. It is due to chemistry and biology. It is not due to politics. It is due to science.
Neither THC nor alcohol impairs blood, breath, urine, or oral fluid. These drugs impair the brain.
We test for alcohol in blood as a surrogate for testing the brain. Blood tests are very easy, and breath tests are even easier. Testing the brain requires an autopsy which is far less convenient, to say the least. For alcohol, blood is an excellent surrogate because it is a small water soluble molecule that rapidly establishes a concentration equilibrium in highly perfused tissues throughout the body.

For some drugs, especially marijuanas THC that is of great popular concern, blood is a terrible surrogate to learn what is in the brain. That is because THC is not highly soluble in blood. THC prefers fatty tissues like the brain, heart, lungs and liver. THC is quickly removed from the blood stream as it is absorbed into the brain and other fatty organs and tissues. Even though the metabolic half-life of THC is estimated to be over four days, more than 90% of THC is cleared from blood within the first hour after smoking marijuana (Huestis et al. 1992; Toennes et al. 2008). See Figure 1. Furthermore, that clearance rate is so highly variable from one individual to another that retrograde extrapolation to estimate blood levels of THC at a prior time cannot be done reliably, as is commonly done with alcohol.

Page 6:

2. Blood levels of THC are lower than brain levels of THC Mura compared THC levels in blood and in the brain in a series of autopsies. There was more THC in the brain than in the blood in 100% of the subjects. Significant levels of THC were
found in the brain even when none could be detected in the blood (Mura et al. 2005). So even if we knew the blood level of THC at the time of the incident, this would tell us absolutely nothing about the drug level of THC in the brain, the only place where it really Matters.


3. Tolerance results in varying levels of impairment at the same blood level
...


So even if we knew the drug level in the brain, this tells us nothing about the level of impairment of the individual.

Page 7

4. Polydrug impairment renders individual drug per se levels meaningless Most drug-impaired drivers responsible for vehicular homicide and assault are polydrug users (Wood and Salomonsen-Sautel 2016). That is, they have at least two drugs in their bodies at the same time. Drug combinations act differently than drugs individually, sometimes with additive effects, sometimes with synergistic effects, sometimes with complementary effects.

Page 8

Proving drug impairment The best way to prove drug impairment is to focus on measurements of drug impairment, rather than measurements of drug levels. After all, impairment is what were worried about, not lab tests. Impairment kills and maims people. Unfortunately, impairment measures are more subjective than laboratory tests.

Page 11

England and Wales recently did the same thing by establishing drug per se levels for a panel of drugs using two different criteria. For illegal drugs, such as marijuanas THC, they set the levels based upon laboratories quantification abilities. For THC that was 2 ng/ml. For legal prescription drugs, they set the per se levels based upon impairment levels chosen by a panel of experts.


Drug per se laws Impairment-based Although some variation on zero tolerance is the preferred way of meeting the demands for drug per se levels, Washington, Colorado and Montana have taken the scientifically invalid approach of establishing what they believe are impairment-based per se levels.
By ignoring all drugs other than marijuana, these states suggest a belief that drug-impaired driving is all about marijuana-impaired driving. Nothing could be further from the truth. For example, a court record study of Colorados 2013 vehicular homicides and vehicular assaults due to DUI revealed that at least 30%, or 51 of those cases, involved drugs. Yet only three of those cases identified marijuana as the sole intoxicant. The other 48 cases involved other drugs or more commonly combinations of drugs, the most common of which was alcohol combined with marijuana (Wood & Salomonsen-Sautel, 2016).

Colorado, Washington and Montana ignore the chemical, biological, and metabolic differences between drugs and alcohol. They ignore the fact that scientific evidence does not support impairment-based per se blood levels of drugs.

Page 13

Fallacies from 5 ng/ml THC supporters


Colorados 5 ng/ml compromise satisfied neither the public safety constituency nor the marijuana lobby.
Only the following constituencies benefit from this poor compromise of 5 ng/ml limit:
1. THC-impaired drivers who test below 5 ng/ml
2. Legislators who can convince poorly educated constituents that they did something to
address the problem of marijuana-impaired driving.
3. In a 5 ng/ml per se state, prosecutors benefit by being able to notch prosecution victories without needing to prove impairment.
Although 5 ng/ml was certainly a compromise, only a handful can claim it was a good compromise.

Page 16

Conclusion Autopilot mentalities and a lack of scientific understanding have caused many state legislators to support scientifically-invalid 5 ng/ml THC per se laws. Impairment by other drugs is thereby ignored, as is polydrug abuse...

Page 17

The American Automobile Association concluded, The data do not support science-based per se limits for THC (Logan, 2016).

Posted by Jason Lun on 05/21/2017 at 11:00 PM

Re: “How Nature Heals: Why East Bay Doctors Are Prescribing The Outdoors To People Of Color

50yrs ago? What does that have to do with today? It costs $2 for a bus ticket. And parks in slums will not bring in business, so how do you expect a city to survive? Welfare checks?

Institutional racism? Awww... Pretty bird. Yes, can you say pretty bird? Pretty bird, yeah pretty bird...Hobart want a cracker?

Posted by George Rockwell on 05/21/2017 at 8:34 PM

Re: “How Nature Heals: Why East Bay Doctors Are Prescribing The Outdoors To People Of Color

As I recall the Bay Area chapter of an environmental organization instituted a program to get minority children to local natural areas. This was 50 years ago in San Francisco where it was established that many impoverished kids in S.F. had never seen the Pacific Ocean.

The redlining and institutional racism continues in "diverse" and oh-so-sensitive Oakland. Instead of devoting bayside parcels to parks and other open spaces for the children who live in poor neighborhoods nearby, Oakland is fostering fancy high-rise developments for the affluent.

The outlook of the privileged class doesn't change so the living conditions of the poorest never get better.

The Nazi George Rockwell has plenty of allies in Oakland's city hall, whether they are conscious of it or not.

Posted by Hobart Johnson on 05/21/2017 at 5:51 PM

Re: “The Future of Driving, Marijuana, And Being Stoned Behind The Wheel

As always, if there's not enough crime, law enforcement will invent crime. That's what the war on drugs is for.

Christopher Fallis
Oakland, CA

Posted by Christopher Fallis on 05/21/2017 at 5:47 PM

Re: “From Growing Marijuana Outdoors to Maximum THC

i have a? i have 2 Mothers 4 foot tall ( for cloning before they went outside ) they look good and they flowering like crazy! i cannot do light deprevation is that may be harvest in july? yor opinion appriciated thank you

Posted by Eugene Shlugleit on 05/21/2017 at 5:12 PM

Re: “How Nature Heals: Why East Bay Doctors Are Prescribing The Outdoors To People Of Color

Yes, lack of green spaces and not laziness and sodium rich diets is the contributing factor to health problems for non-whites.

I know of a couple large land masses where there is plenty of green spaces. I hear the cost of living is quite cheap too!

Posted by George Rockwell on 05/21/2017 at 1:31 PM

Re: “Golden Road Brewing's Meg Gill Visits Oakland To Defend Controversial Plan To Open Beer Garden

The article mentions hogs apothecary as good for the neighborhood but neglected the fact that the owner of hogs steals from his employees by forbidding them from taking legally mandated breaks. This is actually extremely bad for the neighborhood and the workers.

Posted by Brendan McMahon on 05/21/2017 at 11:43 AM

Re: “The Future of Driving, Marijuana, And Being Stoned Behind The Wheel

Denise Valenti

Like all the junk science pushing the idea of marijuana impairment, your "studies" only say a certain percentage of drivers in accidents tested positive for marijuana.

That says NOTHING about impairment or the actual cause of the accidents - just that a some were marijuana consumers. - What actually happened in those accidents was some unfortunate NON-impaired marijuana consumers were crashed into by drunk, texting, or otherwise REALLY impaired drivers.

The preponderance of the legitimate studies actually looking at impairment (like the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration research of 2015 cited below) show that marijuana is NOT a significant cause of auto accidents.

Shame on you for pushing this deceptive propaganda.

Posted by John Thomas on 05/20/2017 at 11:42 PM

Re: “The Future of Driving, Marijuana, And Being Stoned Behind The Wheel

Levels of active THC, inactive THC and CBD or any combination are not enough to determine functional impairment to drive. Consumer tests such as DRUID and MyCanary are excellent tools to raise awareness within the marijuana consuming community about their individual response and impairment with marijuana use.

It is SOOOO biased, uneducated and reactionary to make the assumption that any person concerned with marijuana and public safety (including driving) are not in favor of legal adult use of marijuana. It is not safe to drive after marijuana use. Data in all states with recreational use are suffering with an increase in harm and death.

The data is indicating that one of the more tragic outcome of legal and potentially the medicinal use of marijuana are more drivers using marijuana and driving under the influence. The state of Washington recognized this and worked with private agencies to survey the crash and fatality rates. What is clear is that the fatality rate specific to cannabis has increased.

Another chilling statistic: Those testing positive for marijuana alone, not alcohol or other drugs, are FIVE TIMES more likely to kill someone other than themselves compared to a driver testing positive for alcohol.
http://wtsc.wa.gov/wp-content/uploads/dlm_uploads/2015/10/Driver-Toxicology-Testing-and-the-Involvement-of-Marijuana-in-Fatal-Crashes_REVFeb2016.pdf

Tests of function are desperately needed so as to obtain convictions and remove these dangerous drivers from the road. IMMAD - Impairment Measurement Marijuana and driving is a simple app for a tablet that objectively measures functional impairment. It measures the visual field deficits (HUGE BLIND SPOTS or TUNNEL VISION) that occurs with marijuana use. Marijuana has been shown to significantly impair the eye retinal ganglion cells. IMMAD - Impairment Measurement Marijuana and Driving, measures this. IMMAD and other tests of function need further development and studied so as to have better tools for law enforcement to use in dealing with marijuana impaired driving.

Posted by Denise Valenti on 05/20/2017 at 4:23 PM

Re: “Former Tennis Pro Says East Bay Landlord Michael Marr Was Major Player in Scheme to Rig Foreclosure Auctions

So Glad he's finally being charged. Illegally evicted me, lied in court. This man deserves to rot in hell

Posted by Nick W on 05/20/2017 at 3:28 PM

Re: “Trial Begins for East Bay Landlord Accused of Rigging Foreclosure Auctions

He's an cold hearted human who deserves to be locked up in the Pen. He kept boosting our rent from $1200 to 1,650 in three months with no fixing any of our carpets, lights or doors. Finally came and fixed it after 9 months of begging!!! He deserves to get locked up. There are poor elderly people who lives in his other property who went from 1,000 to 2,800 on rent. Mr. Marr deserve the toilet in prison. Then serve me eviction notes not even on the day of rent but before. His daughter is a cold hearted just like him. Her name is Jessica and she runs her father business located at Community Realty. Take their @$$3s to prison!!!

Posted by Char2765Garden on 05/20/2017 at 11:06 AM

Re: “The Future of Driving, Marijuana, And Being Stoned Behind The Wheel

Why does most everyone jump to the automatic, knee-jerk, and FALSE assumption that cannabis impairs drivers much the same as does alcohol? Why let uninformed opinions be the basis of new laws? It took me very little time to do a search, and find actual scientific studies which indicate just how incorrect such an assumption is. Examples follow.

Studies Show Marijuana Consumption Not Associated With Dangerous Driving, May Lead to Safer Drivers
Anyone who consumes cannabis on a regular basis knows that it doesnt make you a dangerous driver. Many people find that it makes them a safer, more focused driver; one thats more aware of their surroundings and the dangers associated with controlling tons of gasoline-filled metal. Not only has this been an anecdotal truth for as long as cars and cannabis have been paired, science has also been clear that consuming marijuana doesnt make you a dangerous driver, and may make some people safer drivers. More research is needed, but its hard to deny that of the research we have, marijuana hasnt been found to increase a persons risk of an accident. To back this claim up, heres a list of studies and research conducted on this very topic, some of which were funded by national governments in hopes of different results.
http://tinyurl.com/kwz5bz2

Marijuana and Driving: A Review of the Scientific Evidence
"Marijuana has a measurable yet relatively mild effect on psychomotor skills, yet it does not appear to play a significant role in vehicle crashes, particularly when compared to alcohol. Below is a summary of some of the existing data."
http://tinyurl.com/8xa862z

The incidence and role of drugs in fatally injured drivers
"There was no indication that cannabis by itself was a cause of fatal crashes."
REFERENCE: Washington, DC: US Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration,
Report No. DOT HS 808 065, K. Terhune. 1992.
http://tinyurl.com/qfg9ruf

Marijuanas effects on actual driving performance
Evidence from the present and previous studies strongly suggests that alcohol encourages risky driving whereas THC encourages greater caution. .. Drivers under the influence of marijuana retain insight in their performance and will compensate when they can, for example, by slowing down or increasing effort. As a consequence, THCs adverse effects on driving performance appear relatively small.
REFERENCE: University of Adelaide study, 1995
www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/Misc/driving/s1p2.htm

Role of cannabis in motor vehicle crashes
"There is no evidence that consumption of cannabis alone increases the risk of culpability for traffic crash fatalities or injuries for which hospitalization occurs, and may reduce those risks.. The more cautious behavior of subjects who have received marijuana decreases the impact of the drug on performance, whereas the opposite holds true for alcohol.
REFERENCE: Marijuana: On-Road and Driving-Simulator Studies; Epidemiologic Reviews 21: 222-232, A. Smiley. 1999.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10682259

"Both simulation and road trials generally find that driving behaviour shortly after consumption of larger doses of cannabis results in (i) a more cautious driving style; (ii) increased variability in lane position (and headway); and (iii) longer decision times. Whereas these results indicate a 'change' from normal conditions, they do not necessarily reflect 'impairment' in terms of performance effectiveness since few studies report increased accident risk."
REFERENCE: UK Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions (Road Safety Division). 2000.
http://tinyurl.com/og89wrm

Cannabis And Cannabinoids - Pharmacology, Toxicology And Therapy
"At the present time, the evidence to suggest an involvement of cannabis in road crashes is scientifically unproven".
REFERENCE: G. Chesher and M. Longo. 2002.
http://tinyurl.com/o7dmm2g

Cannabis: Our position for a Canadian Public Policy
Cannabis alone, particularly in low doses, has little effect on the skills involved in automobile driving. Cannabis leads to a more cautious style of driving. However it has a negative impact on decision time and trajectory. This in itself does not mean that drivers under the influence of cannabis represent a traffic safety risk
REFERENCE: Canadian Senate Special Committee on Illegal Drugs. 2002.
http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/sen/committee/371/ille/rep/summary-e.htm

"The evidence to suggest an involvement of cannabis in road crashes is scientifically unproven."
REFERENCE: Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential, 2002
Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential, edited by Franjo Grotenhermen, MD and Ethan Russo, MD (Haworth Press 2002).
http://tinyurl.com/o7dmm2g

The Prevalence of Drug Use in Drivers, and Characteristics of the Drug-Positive Group
"There was a clear relationship between alcohol and culpability. In contrast, there was no significant increase in culpability for cannabinoids alone."
REFERENCE: Accident Analysis and Prevention 32(5): 613-622. Longo, MC; Hunter, CE; Lokan, RJ; White, JM; and White, MA. (2000a).
http://www.grotenhermen.com/driving/longo1.pdf

In a 2008 case study published by the International Association for Cannabis as Medicine that explored the potential for THC to have positive effects on attention-deficit disorder, the report's authors concluded that cannabis use could mitigate problems with inattention and lead to "enhanced driving related performance."

The Effect Of Cannabis Compared With Alcohol On Driving
Although cognitive studies suggest that cannabis use may lead to unsafe driving, experimental studies have suggested that it can have the opposite effect. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2009
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2722956/

Why Medical Marijuana Laws Reduce Traffic Deaths
No differences were found during the baseline driving segment (and the) collision avoidance scenarios,
REFERENCE: Research published in the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 2010
http://healthland.time.com/2011/12/02/why-medical-marijuana-laws-reduce-traffic-deaths/

Top 10 Reasons Marijuana Users Are Safer Drivers
20 years of study has concluded that marijuana smokers may actually have fewer accidents than other drivers.
http://www.4autoinsurancequote.com/uncategorized/reasons-why-marijuana-users-are-safe-drivers/

Risk of severe driver injury by driving with psychoactive substances
"The study found that those with a blood alcohol level of 0.12% were over 30 times more likely to get into a serious accident than someone whos consumed any amount of cannabis. .. The least risky drug seemed to be cannabis and benzodiazepines and Z-drugs."
REFERENCE: Accident Analysis & Prevention; Volume 59, October 2013, Pages 346356
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001457513002315

Cannabis: Summary Report
Cannabis alone, particularly in low doses, has little effect on the skills involved in automobile driving.
REFERENCE: Canadian Senate Special Committee on Illegal Drugs
http://tinyurl.com/o7dmm2g

Acute cannabis consumption and motor vehicle collision risk
"There is no evidence that consumption of cannabis alone increases the risk of culpability for traffic crash fatalities or injuries for which hospitalization occurs, and may reduce those risks."
REFERENCE: British Medical Journal, 1999; M. Bates and T. Blakely

Marijuana-DUI Case Tossed by Arizona Supreme Court in Metabolite Ruling
"Because the legislature intended to prevent impaired driving, we hold that the 'metabolite' reference in [the law] is limited to any of a proscribed substance's metabolites that are capable of causing impairment . . . Drivers cannot be convicted of the . . . offense based merely on the presence of a non-impairing metabolite that may reflect the prior usage of marijuana."
http://tinyurl.com/msq7umr

Landmark Study Finds Marijuana Is Not Linked to Car Crashes
http://reason.com/blog/2015/02/09/landmark-study-finds-marijuana-is-not-li

Stoned drivers are a lot safer than drunk ones, new federal data show
http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2015/02/09/stoned-drivers-are-a-lot-safer-than-drunk-ones-new-federal-data-show/

Study of Fatal Car Accidents Shows Medical Marijuana May Help Curb Opioid Use
Since Passing Medical Marijuana Laws, States Have Seen Lower Numbers of Fatal Car Crashes Involving Opioids
https://www.mailman.columbia.edu/public-health-now/news/study-fatal-car-accidents-shows-medical-marijuana-may-help-curb-opioid-use

US Traffic Fatalities, 19852014, and Their Relationship to Medical Marijuana Laws
Results. On average, MML states had lower traffic fatality rates than non-MML states. Medical marijuana laws were associated with immediate reductions in traffic fatalities in those aged 15 to 24 and 25 to 44 years, and with additional yearly gradual reductions in those aged 25 to 44 years.
http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2016.303577

"Stick all *that* in your pipe and smoke it!"

Update: In Preventing Drugged Driving Must Become a National Priority Equivalent to Preventing Drunk Driving, 2015 National Drug Control Strategy ended up admitting that The study found that marijuana users are more likely to be involved in accidents, but that the increased risk may be due in part because marijuana users are more likely to be in high-risk groups for becoming involved in crashes (e.g., young males).

Update 2: "Study: Driving Stoned Wont Make You Much More Likely to Crash"
A new study from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration says smoking pot does not have a significant effect on a persons ability to drive.
http://www.lamag.com/driver/study-stoned-driving-poses-minimal-crash-risks/

Researchers in Norway say past studies about THC-positive drivers involved in motor vehicle accidents have failed to adequately control for other variables. In other words, authors have been quick to jump on cannabis as the cause - even when it may not have been. The researchers, who are set to publish their findings in the journal Addiction, reviewed more than 20 driving culpability studies and two meta-analyses published between 1982 and 2015. They adjusted the numbers and found acute cannabis intoxication increased crash risk only moderately - by about 20 to 40 percent, or an odds ratio of between 1.2 and 1.4.

By comparison, the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration reported that driving with legal amounts of alcohol in ones system increases crash risk almost fourfold (an odds ratio of 3.93). Fun fact: Even the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, a federal agency, acknowledges its difficult to establish a relationship between a person's THC blood or plasma concentration and performance impairing effects.

Posted by Steve Weber on 05/20/2017 at 9:28 AM

Re: “The Future of Driving, Marijuana, And Being Stoned Behind The Wheel

@Michael Milburn - You say:

>>>"DRUID allows marijuana users (or others who drink alcohol, use prescription drugs, etc.) to self-assess their own level of impairment and (hopefully) decide against driving if they are impaired. Prior to DRUID, there was no way for an individual to accurately assess their own level of impairment. "

Not true. - Marijuana consumers already do a good job of "assessing their level of impairment." - That's part of the reason this is a non-problem. - Marijuana doesn't affect judgement as alcohol does. - Consumers know how impaired they are and usually OVER COMPENSATE for it if it exists - choosing NOT to drive or driving extra cautiously if they have to drive.

Bottom line - marijuana is not a significant cause of auto accidents.

Posted by John Thomas on 05/20/2017 at 8:24 AM

Re: “The Future of Driving, Marijuana, And Being Stoned Behind The Wheel

The Prohibitionists are going to push a "per se" level of 5 ng/mL of THC in the blood--legislation like this must be opposed, since the NHTSA acknowledges that blood THC does not predict impairment. We need impairment testing to stop per se laws.
That is why I have developed a new public health app that measures impairment--it is called DRUID (an acronym for DRiving Under the Influence of Drugs) available now in the Apple App Store (Android version coming soon). DRUID measures reaction time, decision making, hand-eye coordination, time estimation and balance, and then statistically integrates hundreds of data points into an overall impairment score. DRUID takes just 5 minutes (and the 2-minute version will be part of the DRUID app in a week or two).

Our website is www.druidapp.com

DRUID allows marijuana users (or others who drink alcohol, use prescription drugs, etc.) to self-assess their own level of impairment and (hopefully) decide against driving if they are impaired. Prior to DRUID, there was no way for an individual to accurately assess their own level of impairment. DRUID also demonstrates that it is feasible to measure impairment reliably by the roadside, not just exposure to a drug.

DRUID was recently featured on NPRs All Things Considered: http://www.npr.org/2017/01/25/511595978/can-sobriety-tests-weed-out-drivers-whove-smoked-too-much-weed

Also on television: http://sacramento.cbslocal.com/2017/02/28/science-lags-behind-marijuana-impairment-testing/

After obtaining my Ph.D. at Harvard, I have been a professor of psychology at UMass/Boston for the past 40 years, specializing in research methods, measurement and statistics.

Michael Milburn, Professor
Department of Psychology
UMass/Boston

Posted by Michael Milburn on 05/20/2017 at 5:28 AM

Re: “The Future of Driving, Marijuana, And Being Stoned Behind The Wheel

One of the most respected researchers in traffic safety is the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. - In 2015, they produced the Drug and Alcohol Crash Risk report which found that while drunken driving dramatically increased the risk of getting into an accident, there was no evidence that using marijuana heightened that risk.

In fact, after adjusting for age, gender, race and alcohol use, the report found that drivers who had recently consumed marijuana were no more likely to crash than drivers who were not intoxicated at all.

This has been confirmed by the preponderance of the research, which shows marijuana consumption is NOT a significant cause of auto accidents.

Posted by John Thomas on 05/20/2017 at 2:44 AM

Re: “The Future of Driving, Marijuana, And Being Stoned Behind The Wheel

What studies have been done using car simulators? Reaction times are surely quantifiable under these conditions so given enough subjects in straight & stoned states we can build up a reasonable objective database.

It's a serious subject that requires serious study.

Posted by Sam Durrango on 05/20/2017 at 1:52 AM

Re: “The Berkeley Bluegrass Festival Returns To Freight & Salvage

Correction:
Tessa Schwartz (not Tracy Schwartz) is the name of the fiddler in 35 Year of Trouble. Helen Lude (not Lundee) is the multi-instrumentalist in the same band.

Posted by Laurie B Lewis on 05/20/2017 at 12:40 AM

Re: “Neptune's Brings Farm-to-Table Credentials to Alameda

Sounds really good but when did breakfast pricing ascend to dinner prices? Not family friendly to average folks or to retirees for that matter. Love trying new restaurants but find ourselves staying home more and more.

Posted by Francesca M. Austin on 05/19/2017 at 7:24 PM

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